If you publish your app to Google Play, you should build and upload an Android App Bundle. When you do so, Google Play automatically generates and serves optimized APKs for each user’s device configuration, so they download only the code and resources they need to run your app. Publishing multiple APKs is useful if you are not publishing to Google Play, but you must build, sign, and manage each APK yourself.
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Multiple APK support is a feature on Google Play that allows you to publishdifferent APKs for your application that are each targeted to different deviceconfigurations. Each APK is a complete and independent version of yourapplication, but they share the same application listing on Google Play and mustshare the same package name and be signed with the same release key. Thisfeature is useful for cases in which your application cannot reach all desireddevices with a single APK.
Android-powered devices may differ in several ways and it's important to thesuccess of your application that you make it available to as many devices aspossible. Android applications usually run on most compatible devices with asingle APK, by supplying alternative resources for different configurations (forexample, different layouts for different screen sizes) and the Android systemselects the appropriate resources for the device at runtime. In a few cases,however, a single APK is unable to support all device configurations, becausealternative resources make the APK file too big or other technical challengesprevent a single APK from working on all devices.
To help you publish your application for as many devices as possible, GooglePlay allows you to publish multiple APKs under the same application listing.Google Play then supplies each APK to the appropriate devices based onconfiguration support you've declared in the manifest file of each APK.
By publishing your application with multiple APKs, you can:
- Support different OpenGL texture compression formats with each APK.
- Support different screen sizes and densities with each APK.
- Support different device feature sets with each APK.
- Support different platform versions with each APK.
- Support different CPU architectures with each APK (such as for ARM or x86, when your app uses the Android NDK).
- Optimize for entry-level devices such as those running Android (Go edition).
Currently, these are the only device characteristics that Google Play supports for publishingmultiple APKs as the same application.
Note: To learn about preparing and publishing APKs on Google Play, see thePrepare & roll-out releases support article.
How multiple APKs work
The concept for using multiple APKs on Google Play is that you have just one entry inGoogle Play for your application, but different devices might download a different APK. Thismeans that:
- You maintain only one set of product details (app description, icons, screenshots, etc.).This also means you cannot charge a different price for different APKs.
- All users see only one version of your application on Google Play, so they are notconfused by different versions you may have published that are 'for tablets' or'for phones.'
- All user reviews are applied to the same application listing, even though users on differentdevices may have different APKs.
- If you publish different APKs for different versions of Android (for different API levels),then when a user's device receives a system update that qualifies them for a different APK you'vepublished, Google Play updates the user's application to the APK designed for the higher versionof Android. Any system data associated with the application is retained (the same as with normalapplication updates when using a single APK).
Which devices receive each APK is determined by Google Play filters that are specified byelements in the manifest file of each APK. However, Google Play allows you to publish multipleAPKs only when each APK uses filters to support a variation of the followingdevice characteristics:
- OpenGL texture compression formats
This is based on your manifest file's
For example, when developing a game that uses OpenGL ES, you can provide one APK fordevices that support ATI texture compression and a separate APK for devicesthat support PowerVR compression (among many others).
- Screen size (and, optionally, screen density)
This is based on your manifest file's
<compatible-screens>element. You should never use both elements and you should use only
For example, you can provide one APK that supports small and normal size screens and another APK that supports large and xlarge screens. To learn more about generating separate APKs based on screen size or density, go to Build Multiple APKs.
Consider the following best practices to support all screen sizes:
- The Android system provides strong support for applications to support all screen configurations with a single APK. You should avoid creating multiple APKs to support different screens unless absolutely necessary and instead follow the guide to Supporting Multiple Screens so that your application is flexible and can adapt to all screen configurations with a single APK.
- By default, all screen size attributes in the
<supports-screens>element are 'true' if you do not declare them otherwise. However, because the
android:xlargeScreensattribute was added in Android 2.3 (API level 9), Google Play will assume that it is 'false' if your application does not set either
android:targetSdkVersionto '9' or higher.
- You should not combine both
<compatible-screens>elements in your manifest file. Using both increases the chances that you'll introduce an error due to conflicts between them. For help deciding which to use, read Distributing to Specific Screens. If you can't avoid using both, be aware that for any conflicts in agreement between a given size, 'false' will win.
- Device feature sets
This is based on your manifest file's
For example, you can provide one APK for devices that support multitouch and anotherAPK for devices that do not support multitouch. SeeFeaturesReference for a list of features supported by the platform.
- Android (Go edition)
To target devices running Android (Go edition), your APK needs to declare
<uses-feature android:name='android.hardware.ram.low' android:required='true'>, target at least API Level 26, and have a higher version code than your non-Go edition APK.
- API level
This is based on your manifest file's
<uses-sdk>element. You can use both the
android:maxSdkVersionattributes to specify support for different API levels.
For example, you can publish your application with one APK that supports API levels 16 - 19 (Android 4.1.x - 4.4.4)—using only APIs available since API level 16 or lower—and another APK that supports API levels 21 and above (Android 5.0+)—using APIs available since API level 21 or lower. To learn how to build separate APKs that each target a different range of APIs, go toConfigure Product Flavors.
If you use this characteristic as the factor to distinguish multiple APKs, then the APK with a higher
android:minSdkVersionvalue must have a higher
android:versionCodevalue. This is also true if two APKs overlap their device support based on a different supported filter. This ensures that when a device receives a system update, Google Play can offer the user an update for your application (because updates are based on an increase in the app version code). This requirement is described further in the section below about Rules for multiple APKs.
You should avoid using
android:maxSdkVersionin general, because as long as you've properly developed your application with public APIs, it is always compatible with future versions of Android. If you want to publish a different APK for higher API levels, you still do not need to specify the maximum version, because if the
'16'in one APK and
'21'in another, devices that support API level 21 or higher will always receive the second APK (because its version code is higher, as per the previous note).
- CPU architecture (ABI)
Some native libraries provide separate packages for specific CPU architectures, or Application Binary Interfaces (ABIs). Instead of packaging all available libraries into one APK, you can build a separate APK for each ABI and include only the libraries you need for that ABI. To learn more about generating separate APKs based on target ABI, go to Build Multiple APKs.
Other manifest elements that enable Google Play filters—but are notlisted above—are still applied for each APK as usual. However, Google Play does not allowyou to publish separate APKs based on variations of those device characteristics. Thus, you cannotpublish multiple APKs if the above listed filters are the same for each APK (but the APKs differbased on other characteristics in the manifest or APK). Forexample, you cannot provide different APKs that differ purely on the
Rules for multiple APKs
Before you publish multiple APKs for your application, you need tounderstand the following rules:
- All APKs you publish for the same application must have the same packagename and be signed with the same certificate key.
- Each APK must have a different version code, specified by the
- Each APK must not exactly match the configuration support of another APK.
That is, each APK must declare slightly different support for at least one ofthe supported Google Play filters (listed above).
Usually, you will differentiate your APKs based on a specific characteristic (such as thesupported texture compression formats), and thus, each APK will declare support for differentdevices. However, it's OK to publish multiple APKs that overlap their support slightly. When twoAPKs do overlap (they support some of the same device configurations), a device that falls withinthat overlap range will receive the APK with a higher version code (defined by
- You cannot activate a new APK that has a version code lower than that of the APK it's replacing. For example, say you have an active APK for screen sizes small - normal with version code
0400, then try to replace it with an APK for the same screen sizes with version code
0300. This raises an error, because it means users of the previous APK will not be able to update the application.
- An APK that requires a higher API level must have a higherversion code.
This is true only when either: the APKs differ based only on thesupported API levels (no other supported filtersdistinguish the APKs from each other) or when the APKs do use another supported filter, butthere is an overlap between the APKs within that filter.
This is important because a user's device receives an application update fromGoogle Play only if the version code for the APK on Google Play is higher than the versioncode of the APK currently on the device. This ensures that if a device receives a system update thatthen qualifies it to install the APK for higher API levels, the device receives an applicationupdate because the version code increases.
Note: The size of the version code increase is irrelevant; itsimply needs to be larger in the version that supports higher API levels.
Here are some examples:
- If an APK you've uploaded for API levels 16 and above (Android 4.1.x+) has a version code of
0400, then an APK for API levels 21 and above (Android 5.0+) must be
0401orgreater. In this case, the API level is the only supported filter used, so the version codesmust increase in correlation with the API level support for each APK, so that usersget an update when they receive a system update.
- If you have one APK that's for API level 16 (and above) and small -large screens, and another APK for API level 21 (and above) and large - xlarge screens, thenthe version codes must increase in correlation with the API levels.In this case, the API level filter is used todistinguish each APK, but so is the screen size. Because the screen sizes overlap (both APKssupport large screens), the version codes must still be in order. This ensures that a large screendevice that receives a system update to API level 21 will receive an update for the secondAPK.
- If you have one APK that's for API level 16 (and above) and small -normal screens, and another APK for API level 21 (and above) and large - xlargescreens, then the version codes do not need to increase in correlation with the APIlevels. Because there is no overlap within the screen size filter, there are no devices thatcould potentially move between these two APKs, so there's no need for the version codes toincrease from the lower API level to the higher API level.
- If you have one APK that's for API level 16 (and above) and ARMv7 CPUs,and another APK for API level 21 (and above) and ARMv5TE CPUs,then the version codes must increase in correlation with the API levels.In this case, the API level filter is used todistinguish each APK, but so is the CPU architecture. Because an APK with ARMv5TE libraries iscompatible with devices that have an ARMv7 CPU, the APKs overlap on this characteristic.As such, the version code for the APK that supports API level 21 and above must be higher.This ensures that a device with an ARMv7 CPU that receives a system update to API level 21will receive an update for the second APK that's designed for API level 21.However, because this kind of update results in the ARMv7 device using an APK that's notfully optimized for that device's CPU, you should provide anAPK for both the ARMv5TE and the ARMv7 architecture at each API level in order to optimizethe app performance on each CPU.Note: This applies only when comparing APKs with the ARMv5TE andARMv7 libraries, and not when comparing other native libraries.
- If an APK you've uploaded for API levels 16 and above (Android 4.1.x+) has a version code of
Failure to abide by the above rules results in an error on the Google Play Consolewhen you activate your APKs—you will be unable to publish your application until youresolve the error.
There are other conflicts that might occur when you activate your APKs, but which will resultin warnings rather than errors. Warnings can be caused by the following:
- When you modify an APK to 'shrink' the support for a device's characteristics and no otherAPKs support the devices that then fall outside the supported range. For example, if an APKcurrently supports small and normal size screens and you change it to support only small screens,then you have shrunk the pool of supported devices and some devices will no longer see yourapplication on Google Play. You can resolve this by adding another APK that supports normal sizescreens so that all previously-supported devices are still supported.
- When there are 'overlaps' between two or more APKs. For example, if an APK supports screensizes small, normal, and large, while another APK supports sizes large and xlarge, there is anoverlap, because both APKs support large screens. If you do not resolve this, then devices thatqualify for both APKs (large screen devices in the example) will receive whichever APK has thehighest version code.
Note: If you're creating separate APKs for different CPU architectures, be aware that an APK for ARMv5TE will overlap with an APK for ARMv7. That is, an APK designed for ARMv5TE is compatible with an ARMv7 device,but the reverse is not true (an APK with only the ARMv7 libraries isnot compatible with an ARMv5TE device).
When such conflicts occur, you will see a warning message, but you can still publish yourapplication.
Creating multiple APKs
Once you decide to publish multiple APKs, you probably need to create separateAndroid projects for each APK you intend to publish so that you can appropriately develop themseparately. You can do this by simply duplicating your existing project and give it a new name.(Alternatively, you might use a build system that can output different resources—suchas textures—based on the build configuration.)
Tip: One way to avoid duplicating large portions of yourapplication code is to use a library project. A libraryproject holds shared code and resources, which you can include in your actual applicationprojects.
When creating multiple projects for the same application, it's a good practice to identify each one with a name that indicates the device restrictions to be placed on the APK, so you can easily identify them. For example, 'HelloWorld_21' might be a good name for an application designed for API level 21 and above.
Note: All APKs you publish for the same applicationmust have the same package name and be signed with the same certificate key. Besure you also understand each of the Rules for multiple APKs.
Assigning version codes
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Each APK for the same application must have a unique version code, specified bythe
android:versionCode attribute. You must be careful about assigning version codes whenpublishing multiple APKs, because they must each be different, but in somecases, must or should be defined in a specific order, based on the configurations that each APKsupports.
Ordering version codes
An APK that requires a higher API level must usually have a higher version code. For example, ifyou create two APKs to support different API levels, the APK for the higher API levels must have thehigher version code. This ensures that if a device receives a system update that then qualifies itto install the APK for higher API levels, the user receives a notification to update the app. Formore information about how this requirement applies, see the section above about Rules for multiple APKs.
You should also consider how the order of version codes might affect which APK your usersreceive either due to overlap between coverage of different APKs or future changes you might make toyour APKs.
For example, if you have different APKs based on screen size, such as one for small - normal andone for large - xlarge, but foresee a time when you will change the APKs to be one for small and onefor normal - xlarge, then you should make the version code for the large - xlarge APK be higher.That way, a normal size device will receive the appropriate update when you make the change, becausethe version code increases from the existing APK to the new APK that now supports the device.
Also, when creating multiple APKs that differ based on support for different OpenGL texturecompression formats, be aware that many devices support multiple formats. Because a devicereceives the APK with the highest version code when there is an overlap in coverage between twoAPKs, you should order the version codes among your APKs so that the APK with thepreferred compression format has the highest version code. For example, you might want to performseparate builds for your app using PVRTC, ATITC, and ETC1 compression formats. If you prefer theseformats in this exact order, then the APK that uses PVRTC should have the highest version code, theAPK that uses ATITC has a lower version code, and the version with ETC1 has the lowest. Thus, if adevice supports both PVRTC and ETC1, it receives the APK with PVRTC, because it has the highestversion code.
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In case Google Play Store is unable to identify the correct APK to install for a target device, you may want to also create a universal APK that includes resources for all the different device variations you want to support. If you do provide a universal APK, you should assign it the lowest
versionCode. Because Google Play Store installs the version of your app that is both compatible with the target device and has the highest
versionCode, assigning a lower
versionCode to the universal APK ensures that Google Play Store tries to install one of your other APKs before falling back to the larger universal APK.
Using a version code scheme
In order to allow different APKs to update their version codes independent of others (forexample, when you fix a bug in only one APK, so don't need to update all APKs), you should use ascheme for your version codes thatprovides sufficient room between each APK so that you can increase the code in one without requiringan increase in others. You should also include your actual version name in the code (that is, theuser visible version assigned to
android:versionName),so that it's easy for you to associate the version code and version name.
Note: When you increase the version code for an APK, GooglePlay will prompt users of the previous version to update the application. Thus, to avoidunnecessary updates, you should not increase the version code for APKs that do not actuallyinclude changes.
We suggest using a version code with at least 7 digits: integers that representthe supported configurations are in the higher order bits, and the version name (from
android:versionName) is in the lower order bits. For example, when the application versionname is 3.1.0, version codes for an API level 4APK and an API level 11 APK would be something like 0400310 and 1100310, respectively. The firsttwo digits are reserved for the API Level (4 and 11, respectively), the middle two digits are foreither screen sizes or GL texture formats (not used in these examples), and the last three digitsare for the application's version name (3.1.0). Figure 1 shows two examples that split based on boththe platform version (API Level) and screen size.
Figure 1. A suggested scheme for your version codes,using the first two digits for the API Level, the second and third digits for the minimum andmaximum screen size (1 - 4 indicating each of the four sizes) or to denote the texture formatsand the last three digits for the app version.
This scheme for version codes is just a suggestion for how you should establish apattern that is scalable as your application evolves. In particular, this scheme doesn'tdemonstrate a solution for identifying different texture compression formats. One option might beto define your own table that specifies a different integer to each of the differentcompression formats your application supports (for example, 1 might correspond to ETC1 and 2 isATITC, and so on).
You can use any scheme you want, but you should carefully consider how future versions of yourapplication will need to increase their version codes and how devices can receive updates wheneither the device configuration changes (for example, due to a system update) or when you modify theconfiguration support for one or several of the APKs.